Staying properly hydrated is crucial for everyone, including our four-legged friends.
Veterinarians recommend that dogs should take between half an ounce and 2 ounces of water per 1lb of their body weight every day.
The best way to ensure your pooch is well-hydrated on your long walks, hiking, traveling or camping out in the outdoors is to invest in a quality dog water bottle.
Finding a portable dog water bottle that’s lightweight, durable and reliable will make your life and that of your furry friend super easy and hassle-free.
Not sure which water bottle is right for your dog? We’ve done the legwork, considered a variety of factors, and eventually rounded up the 20 best dog water bottles for 2020 and beyond.
Also, if you’re looking for something for yourself, check out this guide to the best water bottles of the year.
Our Top Picks for the Best Dog Water Bottles Money Can Buy
Our team reviewed hundreds of dog water bottles to figure which are the crème de la crème.
To arrive at our decisions, we looked at a wide range of considerations, including material construction, ease of use, general quality, capacity, and consumer ratings. Let’s get right on it, shall we?
1- Highwave AutoDogMug
HIGHWAVE AUTODOGMUG Leak-Tight 22oz, Portable Dog Water Bottle for Walking Hiking and Traveling, BPA-Free Materials, Patented Leak-Proof Design (Soft Pink)
- Leak-Tight lock
- Food Safe, BPA-free Materials
- Fits auto drink holders
- Easy one-handed operation
- Patented Design and Function
Best for one-handed use
The Highwave AutoDogMug is a leak-proof, BPA-free and food-safe plastic water bottle with a well-designed lid that conveniently functions as a drinking bowl. All you have to do to re-fill the bowl is to give the bottle a small squeeze. The same goes for draining the ball, ensuring no water goes to waste.
Stylish yet practical and compact, this dog water bottle is decidedly perfect for trips to the dog park, car trips, hikes, and long walks. Not only does it fit into most cup holders but the bottle also comes with a detachable Velcro strap, which means you can attach it to your belt, backpack, rucksack and more. It’s available in six pet-friendly colors, including red, green, pink, blue, smoke, and purple.
- Fits in most cup & bottle holders
- Versatile lid that makes drinking easy for the dog
- Non-toxic, BPA-free & compact design
- Includes Velcro strap and belt clip
- It’s only available in 20-oz size
- May need to constantly squeeze the bottle to keep water on the bowl
2- M&MKPET Dog Water Bottle
M&MKPET Dog Water Bottle for Walking Portable Dog Water Dispenser Pet Travel Drink Cup with Bowl -Food Grade Silicone|BPA Free (12oz, blue)
- QUICK & CONVENIENT— One-hand operation, easy to feed water
- PERFECTLY SAFE — High quality material, lead-free, BPA-free, safe and durable, easy dismantling and cleaning.
- LEAK PROOF LOCK WATER— Silica gel seal ring, make sure the water doesn't leak in your bag.
- DURABLE & EXPANDABLE — Removable top can be washed and easily attached to larger water bottles.12 oz capacity, enough for outdoor walking,hikes, travelling
- EASY FOR TRANSPORTATION — Compact water bottle is great for walking and travelling with you dog.
Best for ease of use
M&MKPET Dog Water Bottle is essentially a handy water cup with a bowl head made from food-grade silicone. This innovative water bottle is BPA-free, lead-free, and FDA-cleared to boot. It’s easy to dismantle, making maintenance and cleaning super easy and hassle-free.
Despite its unique shape and design, the M&MKPET bottle is fully leak-proof thanks to the silica gel seal ring that prevents any spurts. This compact gem is available in 12-oz and 18-oz version, making it ideal for hikes, walks, traveling, and other outdoor activities. The icing on the cake is that it comes complete with a convenient dispenser that you can just tilt to drain back the excess water for no-waste hydration.
- It offers one-handed operation
- Eco-friendly design with BPA-free & lead-free material
- FDA approved, robust silicone design that’s sturdy
- Antibacterial for safer drinking
- The lid can attach to larger bottles
- It’s difficult to completely press down the lock button
- Not comparably durable
- It may begin to leak after heavy use
3- TOPSOSO Water Dispenser for Dogs
TOPSOSO Dog Water Bottle,Portable Silicone Folding Pet Travel Bottle Outdoor Collapsing Water Feeding Bottles Kettle with Carabiner Clip for Dogs Cats-PurpleM
- 1.Dog WATER BOTTLE: the head bowl was made to fit a dog's natural drinking style
- 2.DURABLE CARABINER CLIP:it's a great dog walking bottle for a hike or trip in
- 3.SAFE FOR YOUR DOG: made of safety material-ABS resin lid and silicone bottle
- 4.TOPSOSO WATER BOWL: the water bowl is nice and tightly fixed to the water bottle.It won't fall off
- 5.MULTI-FUNCTION: travel silicone folding pet bottle ,also can be used for water ,food ,or as the ice pack or heat pack
Best dog water bottle for value
The TOPSOSO Water Dispenser for Dogs is a simple, practical and yet impressively portable choice for a dog water bottle that’s available in 20-oz and 10-oz sizes. This lead-free bottle folds out to open, and folds in to close, making operation smooth & easy. To fill the bowl, just flip the lid open and squeeze the bottle, allowing your dog to quench his thirst without any fuss.
The TOPSOSO water bottle boasts lots of other nifty bells & whistles, including a handy belt clip on the backside. It’s compatible with standard water bottles, too. In addition to flip to open & flip to close operation, this pretty bottle is sold in one of four bright colors, namely pink, blue, green and yellow.
- The TOPSOSO accepts standard water bottles for convenient refills
- Flip-out, flip-in lid design makes hydration super easy
- Comes with handy belt clip for easy travel and handling
- Available in 4 stylish colors
- The bottle is reportedly not very durable at the hinge points
- Hard drops can cause the lid to break off
- There’s no mention of it being BPA-free
4- Anpetbest Dog Water Bottle
ANPETBEST Travel Water Bottle 325ML /11oz Water Dispenser Portable Mug for Dogs,Cats and Other Small Animals
- 1. Capacity: Available about 325ml/11oz .
- 2. BPA free, Not only to dogs, but also for small animals such as cats and rabbits.
- 3. Water bottle with attached water bowl,Position upright to fill bowl, Easily disassemble for cleaning.
- 4. Instructions: Remove the bottle from the holder and snap it into the upright position. Squeeze the bottle gently to start water flow. Place the bowl on the ground(Bottle Will not Stay Upright Itself, You May Need to Hold It in order to Avoid Falling Down and Hit Your Pet on The Head) or hold it in your hand and allow your dog to drink.
- 5. With the lovely bone and dog claw pattern, simple design, and easy-carried lanyard, this bottle can go wherever you and your pup love to go! such as taking your pet for a hike, run or overnight trip. The water and bowl in this all-in-one, lightweight, leak-proof water bottle and dispenser is your good choice.
Best for puppies
This beautiful dog water bottle by Anpetbest is uncannily similar in operation, design, and style as Gulpy Dispenser. Likewise, it boasts a BPA-free lid that doubles up as a drinking bowl for your four-legged friend. With a simple flip of the lid, it turns into a convenient cup ideal for cats, dogs, and other pets. Its 11-ounce design makes it perfect for travels, hikes and walks with small dog breeds.
Thanks to its lightweight construction, this leak-proof bottle is best for traveling. It’s easy to maintain and clean, and don’t forget that it features a handy fabric loop for lugging it around. The elegant bright blue lid design with bones and paw prints is attractive and fun, which means it will blend well with your outfit.
- Features an easy-flip open design for
- Lightweight, leak-proof, and comes with a fabric loop for easy transportation
- Made from 100% non-toxic, BPA-free design
- Beautiful and stylish design
- It has a larger capacity of 22 ounces
- It’s no freestanding, meaning you’ll have to hold it in place when your pet is drinking
- Not as durable as its stainless steel counterparts
5- Kurgo Gourd 2 in 1 Dog Water Bottle
Kurgo Gourd (TM) Travel Dog Water Bottle & Dog Water Dispenser, Grass Green
$13.49 in stock
- MADE FROM SAFE MATERIALS: This auto dog mug and pet travel bowl set is PVC free, BPA free and dishwasher safe
- SIZING: Water bottle holds 24 ounces of liquid; dog travel bowl holds 8 ounces
- LIFETIME WARRANTY: Product comes with hassle-free Kurgo Lifetime Warranty against manufacturer defects when purchased new from authorized dealer
- CARRIES WATER FOR YOU & YOUR DOG: You drink from the top, detach the bottom travel dog bowl, pour water for your pup, and Fido drinks from the bottom! Why carry extra water for your pooch when this pet water bottle can do both?! This water bottle for dogs is both portable and convenient. Ultimate Kurgo water bottle is perfect for adventurous people and dogs who enjoy walking, hiking, running or traveling
- COMES IN A VARIETY OF COLORS: Product is available as blue dog water bottle, green dog water bottle, and red dog water bottle
The best 2-in-1 dog water bottle
Kurgo Gourd 2 is a truly sleek-looking water bottle ideal for both dogs and human use. It is compact and lightweight enough to toss into your tote bag, purse or backpack; making it perfect for travel. This versatile 24-ounce water bottle comes with an 8-ounce bottom bowl for your dog. Just detach it from the top, pour some water, and let your pup or Fido have his drink.
Dishwasher-safe, BPA-free, and PVC-free, Kurgo Gourd 2 is the ultimate water bottle ideal for dogs and outdoorsy people who love to travel, run, jog, hike or walk. It is available in three stylish colors, including grass green, coastal blue, and barn red.
- It’s a sturdy & safe water bottle that’s BPA-free and PVC-free
- Dishwasher safe for easy cleaning
- Available in three sleek colors
- Versatile, providing water for you and your four-legged friend
- The handles are said to break easily
- May not fit in most cup holders
- The bowl is sometimes hard to undo
6- Ethical Pet Portable Water Bottle for Dog
Ethical Pet Handi-Drink 17-Ounce Regular Pet Waterer
- Ethical Pet Handi-Drink 17-Ounce Regular Pet Waterer
- Available in three sizes and assorted colors
- Country Of Origin: United States
- Item Package Weight: 4.8
Best portable dog water bottle
The OllyBottle travel water bottle comes in 1-liter and 600ml sizes, both of which include lids that double up as drinking cups. Though it’s a bit on the small side for large dog breeds, the trough-style drinking bowl makes it easy for the pet to lap water from the bottle.
The larger 1-liter version holds plenty of water, making it perfect for long hikes, walks, and traveling. With a familiar design, you may be able to share this bottle with your furry-friend. The patented design is stylish, and the bottle itself is dishwasher safe, easy to fill as well as clean. Above all, the bottle is crafted from Eastman Tristan plastic which is not only BPA-free but also sturdy.
- Extra-long cup for easy drinking by all types of dogs
- Easy to clean, fill, and maintain
- Dishwasher safe
- It’s versatile and perhaps usable by both humans and pets
- The bottle’s screw cap is susceptible to cross-threading
- Might drip some water once the dog is finished drinking
- The Tristan plastic may be prone to cracking
7- Portable Pet Water Bottle by Lixit
Lixit Portable Sport Bottle for Dogs, 20 Oz (Thirsty Dog)
- ON THE GO: Perfect for providing your dog with 20 oz of fresh water when traveling, camping, hiking, and so much more
- ALL IN ONE: Carry water for your dog and a bowl all in one!
- FEATURES: Adjustable carrying strap, flip-down bowl and screw-on lid
- EASY TO USE: The wide mouthed container for easy cleaning and adding ice cubes on hot days
- MADE IN THE USA!
The best lightweight dog water bottle
The Lixit portable dog water bottle delivers just the right amount of hygienic and safe drinking water to your pet. This travel companion is made from lightweight, food-safe silicone, and comes with a reversible flip-to-open dispenser that enables your dog to quench his thirst in the most hygienic manner.
With a leaf-vein modern design, this allows the bottle to deliver safe drinking water in the most flexible and efficient way. It is lightweight and fitted with antibacterial properties, making it ideal for those long trips and travels with your pet friend. Its construction material is non-toxic, BPA-free, and phthalates-free, which is why it’s one of the safest dog water bottles out there. It’s simple to use, too.
- Has a belt clip to attached to a carabiner
- Made from safe, non-toxic materials
- It’s leak-proof and lightweight, making it easy to carry around’
- Sturdy construction guarantees higher durability and stability
- Leaf-vein design for easy water dispensing
- Available only in a 20-ounce size
- Not easy to disassemble
8- TIOVERY Dog Water Bottle
Dog Water Bottle for Walking, TIOVERY Pet Water Dispenser Feeder Container portable with Drinking Cup Bowl Outdoor Hiking, Travel for Puppy, Cats, Hamsters, Rabbits and Other Small Animals 20 OZ
4 used from $11.33
- EXCELLENT PET WATER BOTTLE: the 20 oz capacity dog water bottle with bowl which is big enough and convent for longer walking, hiking and travel. Your lovely pets can enjoy fresh water at anytime and anywhere with this bottle. A must have product for your pets heath
- HIGH QUALITY HEALTHY MATERIAL: our TIOVERY water bottle is made of 100% food grade silicone and plastic. BPA Free, Lead-Free, safe and durable. This bottle ensures your pet friends can safely drink whenever he or she is thirsty
- QUICK and CONVENIENT: you can turn over the fashion leaf bowl quickly and open the cap to squeeze out the water easily. Convenient to feed the water with one hand. Including a removable hand band so you can take it on your hand when you are walking
- LEAF SHAPED BOWL: Made of high quality soft silicone. You pets will love drinking in it. Removable top can be washed and easily attached to other water bottles. It seal really tight on the bottle which can make sure the water doesn't leak in your bag
- 100% Satisfaction Guaranteed: If you or your family member aren't satisfied with it, please go to your order page and CONTACT US. We offer free replacement or full refund upon your demand
Best dog water bottle for walking
This 20-ounce water bottle is large enough and best for traveling, hiking, and long walks with your dog. It can also be an excellent water bottle for your hamster, bunny, cat, or other pets, as well. The stand-out feature is that it’s made from a non-toxic blend of BPA-free plastic and 100% food-grade silicone, which makes the bottle not only safe and durable but also eco-friendly and biodegradable.
Like most bottles of its kind, Tiovery’s equipped with a reversible leaf bowl for convenient hydration. The upper part of the bottle is detachable, easy to wash, and the tight neck accepts all 30/38mm standard water bottles. The tight seal makes sure the design is leak-proof, which means you can throw anywhere in your purse, bag or car.
- Easy dispensing via reversible leaf bowl
- Tight-fitting seal for leak-proof transportation
- Safe and non-toxic construction with BPA-free plastic and food-grade silicone
- It has highly compatible neck design
- Easy to operate
- It can be difficult to refill
- Not exactly ideal for smaller dog breeds
- Available only in 20-ounce capacity
9- Water Rover Bowl and Bottle
Water Rover Bigger 4-Inch Bowl and 26-Ounce Bottle, Purple
- Hands-free - Clips to belt or waist band
- Leak-Free - Even when held upside down
- Waste-Free - Extra water tips back into the bottle
- Hassle-Free - Wide mouth bottle is easy to fill with water and ice
Similar in some way to an espresso port filter, this is another great choice that incorporates a drinking bowl into the bottle unit itself. Its operation is intuitive and mess-free – just undo the stopper and tilt the bottle to pour water into the dispenser. Any excess water can be tipped back into the water bottle, avoiding unnecessary wastage.
The design comes with a sturdy clip for hands-free operation. The mouth opening is large enough so you can fill the cup in no time. It’s available in four quality sizes, which include small (offering 8-ounce capacity), medium (15 oz.), large (26 oz.), and extra-large (26 oz. with a 5.26’ bowl). You can get in any of the nine assorted bowl colors, including light blue, dark blue, green, orange, purple, and pink
- An excellent choice of sizes for all sorts of activities
- Available in nine bright bowl colors
- Comes with a belt clip for hands-free handling
- Leak-proof even when the bottle is tipped
- No-waste design
- Can grow molds if not washed regularly & properly
- Some quality control problems noticed on some units
- It can leak if threads aren’t done properly
10- Guardian Handi Drink Portable Dog Water
Guardian Handi Drink Portable Dog Water Small (17 oz)
- Handi Drink Portable Pet Water makes it easy to bring water for your dog or cat on trips, walks, camping, hiking, beach, park, car rides - anywhere!
- Handi Drink Portable Pet Water is a unique, all-in-one water bottle and pet dish
- Its light weight, carrying strap and belt clip make it easy to carry
- Handi Drink is great for hot weather
- This self-contained water dispenser folds out to create a tray for your dog or cat can drink from
The best dog water bottle for pups
This inexpensive option is a combo of a well-designed water dispenser attached to a 20-oz bottle. Just flip down the drinking vessel when it’s time for your pup to quench his thirst. The flip leaf is made from 100% food-grade silicone and creates a small bowl that you can squeeze water into, making dispensing a breeze.
The bottle stopper is also crafted from food-grade silicone and fitted with a tight-fitting seal to prevent accidental spills, leaks or spurts. Considering its size and design, this bottle is best for small to medium dogs, as well as cats and other smaller pets. It’s compatible with most standard 30/38mm water bottles for easy refills. This lightweight, compact bottle is excellent for hiking; evening walks, or long trips. Good thing, it comes with a belt clip so you can attach it to your backpack or waistband.
- Flip-down silicone vessel for hassle-free dispensing
- Easy to clean and refill
- Offer robust leak protection
- Winner of Reddot Design Award
- Some bottles have been reported to leak when closed
- Slippery especially when wet
- Not great for large dog breeds
11- Yicostar Dog Water Bottle
Yicostar Dog Water Bottle for Walking, 20 OZ Travel Pet Water Bottle with Collapsible Dog Bowl and Potty Waste Bag for Dogs, Portable Dog Water Dispenser for Hiking, Parking and Outdoor
4 used from $13.19
- PRACTICAL & LARGE CAPACITY - Our dog water bottle can hold 20 oz fresh water, enough for outdoor walking, camping, hiking and traveling. Your pet can enjoy fresh water at anytime and anywhere with our dog water bottle.
- EXCELLENT HEALTHY MATERIALS - Made of high quality silicone and PET plastic, BPA Free,Lead-Free, which is very safe and durable to use. No worries for your pets' health.
- QUICK & EAST TO USE - Just open the cap and turn over the leaf, and then squeeze out water. Include a removable hand band and a removable buckle so you can take it on your hand or attach your water bottle to a backpack or belt loop.
- COLLAPSIBLE DOG BOWL - Collapsible dog bowl can hold up to 12 oz (350ml) of water or 1.5 cups of dog food. Easy to pop up and fold away, which is good for traveling, hiking, camping and other activities indoor or outdoor.
- WASTE BAG DISPENSER - One dog waste bag dispenser is convenient for walking with your dog, 15 count bags is included.
Best dog water bottle (overall)
The H2O4K9 is undoubtedly one of the most sought-after dog water bottles right now and with good reason. The bottle comes with a lid that doubles up as a drinking cup. This snazzy bottle is crafted from food-grade stainless steel. It can hold up to 25 ounces of fluid, meaning the capacity is large enough to keep your pooch hydrated for hours.
There’s also a 9-ounce version if you’re looking for a bottle for a small dog or short activities. This lightweight pet-friendly bottle boasts leak-proof design, BPA-free lid construction, sturdy hinge points, and clip loops that work alongside a carabiner for long walks, hikes, and camping out. Plus, it can fit snugly into your car’s cup holder.
- It’s recyclable, making it an eco-friendly choice
- Available in a variety of colors – yellow, pink, red & green
- Offers a large capacity
- Has a versatile design with a lid that can act as a bowl
- It may dent if it drops on a hard surface
- Improper storage can lead to rusting
12- LIFE4FUN the Original Pup Cup Kit
LIFE4FUN Dog Water Bottle for Walking and Food Container 2 in 1 with Dog Water Bowl Collapsible, Travel Dog Water Dispenser for Pets, (XL Size, Blue)
- WATER BOTTLE and FOOD CONTAINER 2 IN 1 : Dog water bottle and food storage container 2-in-1 with two COLLAPSIBLE BOWLS for pets.
- X-LARGE CAPACITY: 10(300ml) oz for water and 7(250g) oz for snacks in ONE BOTTLE, the collapsible dog bowl is 12 oz, enough for outdoor walking, hiking, travelling.
- DURABLE and Safe: BPA Free, food grade PP, not only to dogs, but also for small animals such as cats and rabbits.
- EASY TO CARRY AND CLEAN: Portable size fits in the cup holder in car and for hanging on the backpack, very easy to clean.
- CUSTOMER GUARANTEE: All L4F product provide 30 days money back and 2 months replacement guarantee, priority contact us directly for any issue or complain, 100% satisfaction solution will be provided.
Best dog water bottle for value
If you need a water bottle that holds a little more fluid than the Gourd 2 by Kurgo, then you might want to seriously think about this beauty from LIFE4FUN. This kit brings together a 32-oz Nalgene bottle and the original LIFE4FUN PupCup. This FDA-approved combo kit accepts other water bottles of the same diameter such as Hydro Flask.
BPA-free, latex-free, and toxic-free, this made in the USA bottle is a true gem that helps you and your loved pet stay hydrated for many hours on end. It’s dishwasher-safe and super easy to disassemble for hassle-free maintenance. The simple yet compact design makes it effortless to fill and drain both the bottle and the pup cup.
- It’s dishwasher safe and easy to detach
- Integrated with a large capacity Nalgene bottle for increased compatibility
- Pouring and refilling water is effortless
- It’s latex-free, BPA-free, irritant-free, and made from FDA-approved material
- Only compatible with water bottles sizes 32 ounces to 40 ounces
- A bit slippery when wet
- Removing the pup cup can be sometimes challenging
Choosing the Right Dog Water Bottle – What to Consider
Not all dog water bottles are cut from the same cloth. That’s why you must keep the following factors in mind to pick that one that fit your lifestyle and meet your dog’s hydration needs:
Material Make: Choosing a strong, durable material is important if you want a bottle that will withstand heavy use and give you more mileage for your top-dollar. BPA-free plastic and stainless steel are sturdy and present no health concerns for your pet, which is why they are the most common materials for a portable dog water bottle.
Stainless steel bottles look great, pose no health risk, and are dishwasher safe, not to mention long-lasting. Nonetheless, they can pick up the heat much faster, which is why they are not ideal for hot weather.
Plastic water bottles, on the other hand, are cheap and typically easy to clean, with the vast majority being dishwasher safe. Some dog owners may be a little hesitant because of the rising concerns over toxins in plastic bottles.
Size and Capacity: As we mentioned earlier, a healthy dog should drink at least 0.5 ounces of water for every pound of body weight. That means an average beagle (which weighs roughly 10lbs) should take at least 5 ounces of fluid every day.
What size is best for your dog comes down to the weight of your dog, the season, and other special preferences. For instance, you might want to pick a bottle that will fit into your car’s cup holder for convenient travel.
Drinking Cup Feature: I know what you’re thinking: how the heck will my dog drink from a water bottle? A good dog water bottle should come with a dispenser, flip-out cup, bowl, or a delivery system of some kind. This way, your pooch can happily lap up the water from the bottle.
Different bottle designs come with different sizes and shapes of the drinking cup feature. All the same, don’t skimp on this feature; making sure the cup is the right match for your preference and dog’s needs.
Water Filter vs. No Filter: If you are looking for a camping or travel-friendly dog water bottle, go for one with a built-in filter, which not only improves the taste of water but also helps increase its quality and safety.
Insulation Quality: When temperatures soar past 90 degrees Fahrenheit or deep well below zero during those chilly winter months, it’s best to have a well-insulated water bottle for your pup.
Extra Features: There are a lot of features that can be added to a dog water bottle to offer a truly superior thirst-quenching experience for your pet, as well as make your job as the owner easy.
Some additional features to look out for may include carabiner clips so you can effortlessly attach the bottle to your backpack. Make sure it’s leak-proof, freeze-proof, and easy to refill.
Parting Shot: Which Dog Water Bottle is Right for your Pet?
Taking into account several factors, especially convenience, durability, effectiveness, and capacity, the H2O4K9 is a class apart from the rest. And it helps that the dog water bottle can also help you quench your thirst on the go.
With its eco-friendly stainless steel construction and BPA-free lid design, the H2O4K9 is a water bottle that looks great, does good, and makes you feel amazing about your purchase. It’s rugged, all without compromising on the aesthetics. If you don’t want to share the bottle with your dog, you can always check out our review for the best water bottles for hiking.
If you are looking for something for your young pup, you won’t go wrong with Tuff Pupper PupFlask Jr. It’s fairly leak-proof, earth-friendly, and the dispenser works like a charm, particularly for smaller size dogs. It also scores big points when it comes to portability and price.
At the end of the day, consider a water bottle that’s durable, easy to clean (preferably dishwasher safe), leak-proof, lightweight, easy to fill, and crack-resistant. It’s all about getting as much mileage as possible from your purchase, all without bending on quality, safety, and value.